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AIDS. 2000 Nov 10;14(16):2445-55.

Cross-protection in NYVAC-HIV-1-immunized/HIV-2-challenged but not in NYVAC-HIV-2-immunized/SHIV-challenged rhesus macaques.

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Basic Research Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-5055, USA.



Immunization with attenuated poxvirus-HIV-1 recombinants followed by protein boosting had protected four of eight rhesus macaques from HIV-2SBL6669 challenge. The present study was designed to confirm this result and to conduct the reciprocal cross-protection experiment.


Twenty-four macaques were primed with NYVAC (a genetically attenuated Copenhagen vaccinia strain) recombinants with HIV-1 and HIV-2 env and gag-pol or NYVAC vector alone and boosted with homologous, oligomeric gp160 proteins or adjuvant only. Binding and neutralizing antibodies, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) and CD8 T cell antiviral activity (CD8AA) were evaluated. One half of each immunization and control group were intravenously challenged with SHIV(HXB2) the other half was challenged with HIV-2SBL6669,. Protective outcome was assessed by monitoring virus isolation, proviral DNA and plasma viral RNA.


Both immunization groups developed homologous binding antibodies; however, homologous neutralizing antibodies were only observed in NYVAC-HIV-2-immunized macaques. While no cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies were detected, both immunization groups displayed cross-reactive CTL. Significant CD8AA was observed for only one NYVAC-HIV-2-immunized macaque. Virological assessments verified that both NYVAC-HIV-1 and NYVAC-HIV-2 immunization significantly reduced viral burdens and partially protected against HIV-2 challenge, although cross-protection was not at the level that had been previously reported. Humoral antibody and/or CTL and CD8AA were associated with protection against homologous HIV-2 challenge, while cellular immune responses seemed more important for cross-protection. No significant protection was observed in the SHIV-challenged macaques, although NYVAC-HIV-1 immunization resulted in significantly lower viral burdens compared with controls.


Further delineation of cross-reactive mechanisms may aid in the development of a broadly protective vaccine.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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