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Differentiation. 2000 Oct;66(2-3):147-55.

Atmospheric oxygen accelerates the induction of a post-mitotic phenotype in human dermal fibroblasts: the key protective role of glutathione.

Author information

1
Unilever Research, Colworth Laboratory, Sharnbrook, Bedford, United Kingdom. simon.alaluf@unilever.com

Abstract

It has been proposed that ageing of human dermal fibroblasts occurs as a multi-stage process during which cells progress from a mitotic to a post-mitotic state. We describe the development of a simple and novel cell-cloning model for identifying and quantifying the different fibroblast morphotypes associated with the induction of post mitotic behaviour. We have found that under atmospheric (20%) oxygen tension a significant proportion of human dermal fibroblasts are rapidly induced to switch from a mitotic to a post-mitotic phenotype. In contrast, under more physiological (4%) oxygen conditions, the induction of a post-mitotic phenotype is largely prevented. Increasing oxidative stress by addition of hydrogen peroxide or depletion of glutathione also induced a switch from a mitotic to a post-mitotic phenotype in these cells, whereas addition of the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine under atmospheric (20%) oxygen tension potently inhibited this process. In addition, a statistically significant correlation was observed between the magnitude of intracellular glutathione depletion and the reduction in the population of mitotic cells in this model. We propose that the switch from a mitotic to a post-mitotic phenotype represents a process of cellular ageing and that standard atmospheric oxygen tension imposes a substantial oxidative stress on dermal fibroblasts which accelerates this process in culture. The data also suggest that intracellular glutathione levels strongly influence the induction of a post-mitotic phenotype and that, by implication, depletion of glutathione may play a significant role in the progression of cellular ageing in human skin.

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