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J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol. 2000 Apr-Jun;20(2):84-93.

Merging the old skeletal biology with the new. I. Intramembranous ossification, endochondral ossification, ectopic bone, secondary cartilage, and pathologic considerations.

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Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.


Skeletogenesis and chondrogenesis result from a sequence of events involving epithelial-mesenchymal interaction, condensation, and differentiation. Types of bone and cartilage formation include: (1) intramembranous ossification, (2) endochondral ossification, (3) combined endochondral and intramembranous ossification, (4) heterotopic bone and cartilage formation, and (5) secondary cartilage formation. Pathologic conditions with bone and cartilage include: (1) benign and malignant tumors and (2) reactive osseous and cartilaginous metaplasia.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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