Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Nature. 2000 Nov 23;408(6811):460-3.

Concurrent density dependence and independence in populations of arctic ground squirrels.

Author information

1
Division of Life Sciences, University of Toronto at Scarborough, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

No population increases without limit. The processes that prevent this can operate in either a density-dependent way (acting with increasing severity to increase mortality rates or decrease reproductive rates as density increases), a density-independent way, or in both ways simultaneously. However, ecologists disagree for two main reasons about the relative roles and influences that density-dependent and density-independent processes have in determining population size. First, empirical studies showing both processes operating simultaneously are rare. Second, time-series analyses of long-term census data sometimes overestimate dependence. By using a density-perturbation experiment on arctic ground squirrels, we show concurrent density-dependent and density-independent declines in weaning rates, followed by density-dependent declines in overwinter survival during hibernation. These two processes result in strong, density-dependent convergence of experimentally increased populations to those of control populations that had been at low, stable levels.

PMID:
11100725
DOI:
10.1038/35044064
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Nature Publishing Group
    Loading ...
    Support Center