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Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2000 Aug;34(4):246-51.

Factors of importance for prediction of survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, treated with or without nephrectomy.

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Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Urology and Andrology, UmeƄ University, Sweden.



The indications for nephrectomy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma remain controversial. A number of variables were analysed to identify factors that might predict the survival time, and these factors were used to obtain guidance as to which patients might benefit from palliative nephrectomy.


We reviewed the medical records for 106 consecutive patients with primary metastatic renal cell carcinoma, including clinicopathological factors, routine laboratory data and metastatic spread. The association of the different factors to survival time was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis.


A number of factors correlated to survival time in univariate analysis, including solitary versus multiple metastases, serum albumin and DNA ploidy, but after Cox multivariate analysis their significance was lost. The remaining independent prognostic factors were performance status, number of metastatic sites, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), calcium in serum and vein invasion with tumour thrombus formation. The factors with no association to survival time were the metastatic sites, tumour size and nuclear grade. Patients treated with nephrectomy had a significantly longer survival time than those who did not undergo nephrectomy (p < 0.001). None of the 28 patients who did not undergo nephrectomy survived for 2 years, compared with 38 of the 78 patients who were nephrectomized.


Patients who can be expected to survive longer, and who might be recommended for nephrectomy despite metastatic disease, would have the following independent factors: a good performance status, metastases limited to one organ, low ESR, normal calcium in serum and no tumour thrombus formation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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