Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Teratology. 2000 Dec;62(6):413-9.

Nonspecific stimulation of the maternal immune system. I. Effects On teratogen-induced fetal malformations.

Author information

  • 1Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061-0442, USA.



Maternal immune stimulation has reported, but unconfirmed, efficacy for reducing chemical-induced morphologic defects in mice.


Teratogenic chemicals (2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD], ethyl carbamate [urethane], methylnitrosourea [MNU], or valproic acid [VA]) were given to pregnant mice to induce cleft palate (TCDD, urethane), digital defects (urethane, MNU), or exencephaly (VA). Before teratogen administration, the immune system of female mice was stimulated by intraperitoneal (IP) administration of pyran copolymer or attenuated bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG), or by footpad injection with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA).


Fetal defects caused by all four chemicals studied were reduced by maternal immunostimulation, sometimes dramatically. In addition to reducing VA-induced exencephaly, immunostimulation with FCA resulted in fetal mice displaying anury (absence of tails). Activated maternal immune cells could not be detected in fetal circulation using flow cytometry and a fluorescent cell-tracking probe.


For the chemicals tested, maternal immune stimulation has efficacy in reducing fetal defects. Immune protection against teratogenesis may be an indirect effect of maternal immune cell activation.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Support Center