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Mol Cell. 2000 Oct;6(4):781-90.

Interactions between chip and the achaete/scute-daughterless heterodimers are required for pannier-driven proneural patterning.

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Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS/INSERM/ULP, Illkirch, Strasbourg, France.


The GATA factor Pannier activates the achaete-scute (ASC) proneural complex through enhancer binding and provides positional information for sensory bristle patterning in Drosophila. Chip was previously identified as a cofactor of the dorsal selector Apterous, and we show here that both Apterous and Chip also regulate ASC expression. Chip cooperates with Pannier in bridging the GATA factor with the HLH Ac/Sc and Daughterless proteins to allow enhancer-promoter interactions, leading to activation of the proneural genes, whereas Apterous antagonizes Pannier function. Within the Pannier domain of expression, Pannier and Apterous may compete for binding to their common Chip cofactor, and the accurate stoichiometry between these three proteins is essential for both proneural prepattern and compartmentalization of the thorax.

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