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Shinrigaku Kenkyu. 2000 Aug;71(3):241-6.

[Development of the general affect scales].

[Article in Japanese]

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Graduate School of Psychology, Faculty of Letters, Doshisha University, Kyoto.


This study aimed at developing a self-report instrument of general mood states which was brief and easy to administer for Japanese respondents. Four studies were conducted. In Study 1, we administered some existing mood questionnaires in order to select appropriate items from them. Factor analysis using oblique rotation yielded eight factors. Following Study 2 and 3, we developed an instrument called the General Affect Scales with three 8-item subscales: positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and calmness (CA). The reliability and the validity of each scale were then investigated. It was shown that the subscales except the CA are highly internally consistent and factorially valid. Finally, these subscales were compared with other mood scales in Study 4.

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