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Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Oct 31;1488(1-2):149-58.

Transcriptional regulation of inflammatory secreted phospholipases A(2).

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CNRS-associated research unit of Pierre and Marie Curie University (Paris VI), ESA 7079, 7 quai Saint Bernard, 75005, Paris, France.


Secreted phospholipases A(2) is a family of small molecular weight and calcium-dependent enzymes of which the members list is presently growing. Among these enzymes, the synovial type IIA and the type V phospholipases A(2) are involved in inflammation. Although their actual mechanism is still a subject of debate, new therapeutic strategies can result from the knowledge of the regulations of their gene expression. The human genes of the type IIA and type V phospholipases A(2) are located on the chromosome 1 at close positions and transcribed in reverse orientations. These genes can therefore be regulated by common elements but only the regulation of the type IIA phospholipase A(2) gene expression has been extensively studied. Pro-inflammatory cytokines upregulate while the growth factors downregulate the type IIA phospholipase A(2) gene expression. Interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta exert their effects at least partially at the transcriptional level. The transcriptional regulation of the type IIA phospholipase A(2) gene is cell- and species-specific. The activity of the human promoter is controlled by the CAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) factors while that of the rat promoter is regulated by nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and C/EBPs. Furthermore, the human promoter is constitutively repressed in hepatocytes by single strand DNA binding proteins whose effects are relieved by C/EBP factors while the glucocorticoid receptor interacts with C/EBPs in chondrocytes to achieve full basal and interleukin-1beta-stimulated transcription activity. Other factors like CTF/NF1 and Sp1 might be involved in the regulation of both the rat and human promoter. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors could contribute to the stimulation of the rat promoter by NF-kappaB in vascular smooth muscle cells. The study of the coactivators and coinhibitors associated to these transcription factors will give a better understanding of the diversity and complexity of the transcriptional regulations of the type IIA phospholipase A(2) gene.

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