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J Endocrinol Invest. 2000 Oct;23(9):584-91.

Lessons from knockout and transgenic mice for infertility in men.

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Medical Research Council, Human Genetics Unit, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK.


This review concentrates on the clear cases where knocking out a gene in mice has caused male infertility and thus comes near to proving that the gene plays a role in the development of sperm. Knockout mice have been created with primary defects at every stage of spermatogenesis thus creating a framework for decoding the genetic hierarchy that causes male germ cell differentiation. As well as defining essential genes in vivo experiments have defined promoter and untranslated sequences responsible for the expression of proteins at all the spermatogenic stages. In conclusion knockout mice remain the ultimate test of spermatogenic hypotheses as well as providing detailed information about this complex process.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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