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J Biol Chem. 2001 Mar 16;276(11):8469-74. Epub 2000 Nov 14.

A proteome analysis of the cadmium response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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  • 1Service de Biochimie et Génétique Moléculaire, Bât 142, CEA-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.


Cadmium is very toxic at low concentrations, but the basis for its toxicity is not clearly understood. We analyzed the proteomic response of yeast cells to acute cadmium stress and identified 54 induced and 43 repressed proteins. A striking result is the strong induction of 9 enzymes of the sulfur amino acid biosynthetic pathway. Accordingly, we observed that glutathione synthesis is strongly increased in response to cadmium treatment. Several proteins with antioxidant properties were also induced. The induction of nine proteins is dependent upon the transactivator Yap1p, consistent with the cadmium hypersensitive phenotype of the YAP1-disrupted strain. Most of these proteins are also overexpressed in a strain overexpressing Yap1p, a result that correlates with the cadmium hyper-resistant phenotype of this strain. Two of these Yap1p-dependent proteins, thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase, play an important role in cadmium tolerance because strains lacking the corresponding genes are hypersensitive to this metal. Altogether, our data indicate that the two cellular thiol redox systems, glutathione and thioredoxin, are essential for cellular defense against cadmium.

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