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J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2000 Nov;55(6):S352-6.

Outcome expectations for exercise scale: utility and psychometrics.

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School of Nursing, University of Maryland at Baltimore 21201, USA.



The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of outcome expectations for exercise specifically for the older adult (The Outcome Expectations for Exercise [OEE] Scale), and to test the reliability and validity of this measure in a sample of older individuals. This scale was developed based on Bandura's theory of self-efficacy and the work of prior researchers in the development of measures of outcome expectations.


The OEE scale, which was completed during a face-to-face interview, was tested in a sample of 175 residents in a continuing care retirement community.


There was support for the internal consistency of the OEE scale (alpha coefficient of .89), and some support for reliability based on a structural equation modeling approach that used R2 estimates, although less than half of these were greater than 0.5. There was evidence of validity of the measure based on: (a) a confirmatory factor analysis in which the model fit the data (normed fit index [NFI] = .99, root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] - .07, chi2/df = 2.8); (b) support for the hypothesis that those who exercised regularly had higher OEE scores than those who did not (F = 31.3, p < .05, eta squared = .15); and (c) a statistically significant relationship between outcome expectations and self-efficacy expectations (r = .66).


This study provides some initial support for the reliability and validity of the OEE scale. Outcome expectations for exercise were related to exercise behavior in the older adult, and the OEE scale can help identify older adults with low outcome expectations for exercise. Interventions can then be implemented to help these individuals strengthen their outcome expectations, which may subsequently improve exercise behavior.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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