Send to

Choose Destination
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000 Nov;39(11):1424-31.

Natural outcome of ADHD with developmental coordination disorder at age 22 years: a controlled, longitudinal, community-based study.

Author information

Institute for the Health of Women and Children, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Göteborg, Sweden.



There is a need for controlled longitudinal studies in the field of attention disorders in the general population.


In a community-based follow-up study, 55 of 61 subjects aged 22 years, who had attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without comorbid developmental coordination disorder (DCD) at initial workup at age 7 years, were compared, on a multitude of outcome variables, with 46 of 51 age-matched subjects without such diagnoses. None of the subjects had received stimulant treatment. Psychiatrists performing the follow-up study were blind to original diagnostic group status.


In the ADHD/DCD group 58% had a poor outcome compared with 13% in the comparison group (p < .001). Remaining symptoms of ADHD, antisocial personality disorder, alcohol abuse, criminal offending, reading disorders, and low educational level were overrepresented in the ADHD/DCD groups. The combination of ADHD and DCD appeared to carry a particularly gloomy outlook.


Childhood ADHD and DCD appears to be a most important predictor of poor psychosocial functioning in early adulthood. It would seem appropriate to screen for such disorders in schools and clinics so that therapies may be started early.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center