Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Biol Psychiatry. 2000 Oct 15;48(8):778-90.

Effects of early adverse experiences on brain structure and function: clinical implications.

Author information

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA.


Child abuse is associated with markedly elevated rates of major depression and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. This article reviews preclinical studies examining the effects of early stress, factors that modify the impact of these experiences, and neurobiological changes associated with major depression. Preclinical studies demonstrate that early stress can alter the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone, monoaminergic, and gamma-aminobutyric acid/benzodiazepine systems. Stress has also been shown to promote structural and functional alterations in brain regions similar to those seen in adults with depression. Emerging data suggest, however, that the long-term effects of early stress can be moderated by genetic factors and the quality of the subsequent caregiving environment. These effects also can be prevented or reversed with various pharmacologic interventions. Preclinical studies of early stress can provide valuable insights in understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of major depression. They also can provide an important tool to use to investigate interactions between genes and environments in determining an individual's sensitivity to stress. More research is needed to understand how inherent factors interact with experiences of abuse and other psychosocial factors to confer vulnerability to develop depression.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center