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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2000 Nov;46(5):733-9.

A combined in vivo pharmacokinetic-in vitro pharmacodynamic approach to simulate target site pharmacodynamics of antibiotics in humans.

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Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Division of Clinical Pharmacokinetics, University of Vienna Medical School, Austria.


We describe a new approach to quantify in vivo anti-infective activity by simulating effect site pharmacokinetics of antibiotics in vitro. This approach is based on (i) the in vivo measurement of interstitial drug pharmacokinetics (PK) at the target site and (ii) a subsequent pharmacodynamic (PD) simulation of the time versus drug concentration profile in an in vitro setting. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, individual time-concentration profiles of ciprofloxacin were measured in the interstitial space fluid of eight healthy volunteers by microdialysis following iv administration of 200 mg. Thereafter, different isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were exposed in vitro to the interstitial ciprofloxacin concentration profile obtained from in vivo experiments. This led to a 1- to 3-log10 decrease in the number of viable organisms after 8 h. Significant correlations were observed between the maximal bactericidal effect and several PK surrogate parameters, notably the AUC/MIC ratio (P: = 0.0005), the C:max/MIC ratio (P: = 0.006) and the time > MIC (P: = 0.02). Furthermore, the data were analysed with an integrated PK-PD model allowing a much more detailed evaluation of the data than using MIC. The model employed an E:max relationship to link unbound ciprofloxacin concentration to bacterial kill rate. In conclusion, our experiments show that therapeutic success and failure in antimicrobial therapy may be explained by pharmacokinetic variability at the target site. Therefore, the in vivo PK-in vitro PD approach presented in our study may provide valuable guidance for drug and dose selection of antimicrobial agents.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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