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Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2000 Jul;9(7):1537-44.

Novel therapeutic approaches to gastric and duodenal ulcers: an update.

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International Drug Development Consultants Corporation, 1549 RFD, Long Grove, IL 60047-9532, USA.


Over the last 25 years, a remarkable revolution in the pathophysiology and treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers has occurred. Effective therapies were developed not only to heal ulcers, but also to cure most patients. The two principal causes for gastric and duodenal ulcers are either infection with Helicobacter pylori or the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). With H. pylori eradication, gastric and duodenal ulcers are rapidly becoming historical diseases. This communication reviews the salient pharmacology of the novel anti-ulcer drugs currently in development, with particular emphasis on the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers. Intense research is currently focused on the development of proton pump inhibitors primarily for the treatment and prevention of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The older proton pump inhibitors, omeprazole and lansoprazole, are effective in healing gastric and duodenal ulcers. Furthermore, both drugs are effective in eradicating H. pylori when given with various antibiotics. Pantoprazole, rabeprazole and esomeprazole are new proton pump inhibitors, which appear to have comparable therapeutic profiles with omeprazole and lansoprazole. Rebamipide is a new mucosal protective drug, which is effective in healing gastric ulcers. Polaprezinc and nocloprost are also mucosal protective drugs, which are in clinical development. However, none of these three cytoprotective drugs have been evaluated for their efficacy in eradicating H. pylori when given in combination with antibiotics. Likewise, no published literature exists on the use of these drugs for preventing NSAID-induced ulcers. With the rapid eradication of H. pylori currently happening in the developed world, the therapeutic challenge is now directed toward preventing NSAID-associated ulcer. Significant reduction of NSAID-induced ulcers is achieved by using continuous prophylactic anti-ulcer therapy (misoprostol or omeprazole) or by using NSAIDs possessing selective COX-2 inhibitory activity. However, outcome clinical studies are needed to compare the adjuvant anti-ulcer therapies given with COX-1 inhibitors versus the selective COX-2 inhibitors given alone.

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