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J Lipid Res. 2000 Nov;41(11):1858-71.

Lipoprotein lipase- and hepatic triglyceride lipase- promoted very low density lipoprotein degradation proceeds via an apolipoprotein E-dependent mechanism.

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Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.


Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is the primary recognition signal on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins responsible for interacting with low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors and LDL receptor-related protein (LRP). It has been shown that lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) promote receptor-mediated uptake and degradation of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and remnant particles, possibly by directly binding to lipoprotein receptors. In this study we have investigated the requirement for apoE in lipase-stimulated VLDL degradation. We compared binding and degradation of normal and apoE-depleted human VLDL and apoE knockout mouse VLDL in human foreskin fibroblasts. Surface binding at 37 degrees C of apoE knockout VLDL was greater than that of normal VLDL by 3- and 40-fold, respectively, in the presence of LPL and HTGL. In spite of the greater stimulation of surface binding, lipase-stimulated degradation of apoE knockout mouse VLDL was significantly lower than that of normal VLDL (30, 30, and 80%, respectively, for control, LPL, and HTGL treatments). In the presence of LPL and HTGL, surface binding of apoE-depleted human VLDL was, respectively, 40 and 200% of normal VLDL whereas degradation was, respectively, 25 and 50% of normal VLDL. LPL and HTGL stimulated degradation of normal VLDL in a dose-dependent manner and by a LDL receptor-mediated pathway. Maximum stimulation (4-fold) was seen in the presence LPL (1 microgram/ml) or HTGL (3 microgram/ml) in lovastatin-treated cells. On the other hand, degradation of apoE-depleted VLDL was not significantly increased by the presence of lipases even in lovastatin-treated cells. Surface binding of apoE-depleted VLDL to metabolically inactive cells at 4 degrees C was higher in control and HTGL-treated cells, but unchanged in the presence of LPL. Degradation of prebound apoE-depleted VLDL was only 35% as efficient as that of normal VLDL. Surface binding of apoE knockout or apoE-depleted VLDL was to heparin sulfate proteoglycans because it was completely abolished by heparinase treatment. However, apoE appears to be a primary determinant for receptor-mediated VLDL degradation. Our studies suggest that overexpression of LPL or HTGL may not protect against lipoprotein accumulation seen in apoE deficiency.

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