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J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Nov;38(11):3984-90.

Molecular epidemiological analysis of Cryptosporidium spp. in the United Kingdom: results of genotyping Cryptosporidium spp. in 1,705 fecal samples from humans and 105 fecal samples from livestock animals.

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Food Safety Microbiology Laboratory, Division of Gastrointestinal Infections, PHLS Central Public Health Laboratory, London NW9 5HT, United Kingdom.


Cryptosporidium present in 1,705 fecal samples from humans and 105 from livestock animals were analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein. Overall, genotype 1 (human exclusive type) was detected in 37.8% of the samples from humans, genotype 2 (broad host range) was detected in 61.5%, a third genotype designated genotype 3 (Cryptosporidium meleagridis) was detected in 0.3%, and both genotypes 1 and 2 were recovered from 0.4%. All samples from livestock yielded genotype 2. Among 469 patients infected during eight drinking water-related outbreaks, five outbreaks were predominantly due to genotype 1, and three were due to genotype 2. Fifty-four samples were collected from patients involved with five swimming pool-associated outbreaks: two outbreaks were due to genotype 1, one was due to genotype 2, and the remaining two involved both genotypes 1 and 2. Among 26 family outbreaks and 1 children's nursery outbreak (2 to 3 members per group), the same genotype was recovered from the different members of each outbreak: 13 were due to genotype 1, and 14 were due to genotype 2. In eighteen patients reporting contact with animals and/or farms, genotype 1 was recovered from one patient and genotype 2 was recovered from the remaining 17. Among the sporadic cases, there were distinct geographical and temporal variations in the distribution of the genotypes. The spring peak in cases was due to genotype 2. Genotype 1 was significantly more common in patients infected during the late-summer-autumn peak and in those with a history of foreign travel.

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