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Thromb Haemost. 2000 Oct;84(4):565-70.

Increased fibrinogen levels and hemostatic abnormalities in patients with arteriolar nephrosclerosis: association with cardiovascular events.

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Department of Experimental and Clinical Pathology and Medicine, University of Udine, Italy.


Increased plasma fibrinogen levels and hemostatic abnormalities suggestive of a prothrombotic state are present in patients with end-stage renal failure and could contribute to increased cardiovascular morbidity in these patients. We investigated the relationship between abnormalities of the hemostatic system and the degree of renal failure and whether these abnormalities are associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular events in patients with arteriolar nephrosclerosis. In 425 patients recruited at a hypertension clinic we assessed the renal function by creatinine clearance, urinary protein excretion, and microalbuminuria, the prevalence of atherosclerotic disease, and measured prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time. fibrinogen, prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), D-dimer, and antithrombin. Early impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance, 30 to 89 ml/min per 1.73 m2 of body surface area) caused by arteriolar nephrosclerosis was found in 172 patients. Patients with early renal failure were significantly older and had significantly greater values of blood pressure, plasma fibrinogen, F1+2, and D-dimer than patients with normal renal function. Elevated D-dimer and fibrinogen levels were independently associated with the presence of decreased creatinine clearance. Log fibrinogen, log F1+2, and log D-dimer were inversely correlated with creatinine clearance. The prevalence of coronary artery, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular disease was significantly greater in patients with mild renal failure than in those with normal renal function. Elevated levels of fibrinogen and D-dimer were associated with the presence of atherosclerotic disease independent of renal function and other risk factors. In conclusion, changes in hemostatic parameters occur early in the course of renal failure in patients with arteriolar nephrosclerosis, suggesting a prothrombotic state that may contribute to the risk for atherosclerotic disease at all levels of renal function.

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