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J Biol Chem. 2001 Feb 16;276(7):5274-80. Epub 2000 Oct 30.

G(i)-mediated Cas tyrosine phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells stimulated with sphingosine 1-phosphate: possible involvement in cell motility enhancement in cooperation with Rho-mediated pathways.

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Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yamanashi Medical University, Nakakoma, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan.


Since blood platelets release sphingosine 1-phosphate (Sph-1-P) upon activation, it is important to examine the effects of this bioactive lipid on vascular endothelial cell functions from the viewpoint of platelet-endothelial cell interactions. In the present study, we examined Sph-1-P-stimulated signaling pathways related to human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) motility, with a special emphasis on the cytoskeletal docking protein Crk-associated substrate (Cas). Sph-1-P stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas, which was inhibited by the G(i) inactivator pertussis toxin but not by the Rho inactivator C3 exoenzyme or the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632. Fyn constitutively associated with and phosphorylated Cas, suggesting that Cas tyrosine phosphorylation may be catalyzed by Fyn. Furthermore, upon HUVEC stimulation with Sph-1-P, Crk, through its SH2 domain, interacted with tyrosine-phosphorylated Cas, and the Cas-Crk complex translocated to the cell periphery (membrane ruffles), through mediation of G(i) (Fyn) but not Rho. In contrast, tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, and formation of stress fibers and focal adhesion were mediated by Rho but not G(i) (Fyn). Finally, Sph-1-P-enhanced HUVEC motility, assessed by a phagokinetic assay using gold sol-coated plates and a Boyden's chamber assay, was markedly inhibited not only by pertussis toxin (or the Fyn kinase inhibitor PP2) but also by C3 exoenzyme (or Y-27632). In HUVECs stimulated with Sph-1-P, these data suggest the following: (i) cytoskeletal signalings may be separable into G(i)-mediated signaling pathways (involving Cas) and Rho-mediated ones (involving FAK), and (ii) coordinated signalings from both pathways are required for Sph-1-P-enhanced HUVEC motility. Since HUVECs reportedly express the Sph-1-P receptors EDG-1 (coupled with G(i)) and EDG-3 (coupled with G(13) and G(q)) and the EDG-3 antagonist suramin was found to block specifically Rho-mediated responses, it is likely that Cas-related responses following G(i) activation originate from EDG-1, whereas Rho-related responses originate from EDG-3.

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