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FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2000 Oct 1;34(1):45-56.

Identification of novel Archaea in bacterioplankton of a boreal forest lake by phylogenetic analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization(1).

Abstract

We report here on novel groups of Archaea in the bacterioplankton of a small boreal forest lake studied by the culture-independent analysis of the 16S rRNA genes amplified directly from lake water in combination with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Polymerase chain reaction products were cloned and 28 of the 160 Archaea clones with around 900-bp-long 16S rRNA gene inserts, were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis, including 642 Archaea sequences, confirmed that none of the freshwater clones were closely affiliated with known cultured Archaea. Twelve Archaea sequences from lake Valkea Kotinen (VAL) belonged to Group I of uncultivated Crenarchaeota and affiliated with environmental sequences from freshwater sediments, rice roots and soil as well as with sequences from an anaerobic digestor. Eight of the Crenarchaeota VAL clones formed a tight cluster. Sixteen sequences belonged to Euryarchaeota. Four of these formed a cluster together with environmental sequences from freshwater sediments and peat bogs within the order Methanomicrobiales. Five were affiliated with sequences from marine sediments situated close to marine Group II and three formed a novel cluster VAL III distantly related to the order Thermoplasmales. The remaining four clones formed a distinct clade within a phylogenetic radiation characterized by members of the orders Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales on the same branch as rice cluster I, detected recently on rice roots and in anoxic bulk soil of flooded rice microcosms. FISH with specifically designed rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes revealed the presence of Methanomicrobiales in the studied lake. These observations indicate a new ecological niche for many novel 'non-extreme' environmental Archaea in the pelagic water of a boreal forest lake.

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