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Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2000 Nov;279(5):L958-66.

Anti-inflammatory effects of triptolide in human bronchial epithelial cells.

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Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California 94305-5236, USA.


Triptolide (PG490, 97% pure) is a diterpenoid triepoxide with potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in transformed human bronchial epithelial cells and T cells (Qiu D, Zhao G, Aoki Y, Shi L, Uyei A, Nazarian S, Ng JC-H, and Kao PN. J Biol Chem 274: 13443-13450, 1999). Triptolide, with an IC(50) of approximately 20-50 ng/ml, inhibits normal and transformed human bronchial epithelial cell expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or IL-1 beta. Nuclear runoff and luciferase reporter gene assays demonstrate that triptolide inhibits IL-8 transcription. Triptolide also inhibits the transcriptional activation, but not the DNA binding, of nuclear factor-kappa B. A cDNA array and clustering algorithm analysis reveals that triptolide inhibits expression of the PMA-induced genes tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 alpha, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, integrin beta(6), vascular endothelial growth factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, GATA-3, fra-1, and NF45. Triptolide also inhibits constitutively expressed cell cycle regulators and survival genes cyclins D1, B1, and A1, cdc-25, bcl-x, and c-jun. Thus anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and proapoptotic properties of triptolide are associated with inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B signaling and inhibition of genes known to regulate cell cycle progression and survival.

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