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J Med Chem. 2000 Oct 19;43(21):3995-4004.

Inhibitors of NF-kappaB and AP-1 gene expression: SAR studies on the pyrimidine portion of 2-chloro-4-trifluoromethylpyrimidine-5-[N-(3', 5'-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)carboxamide].

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Signal Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 5555 Oberlin Drive, San Diego, California 92121, USA.


We investigated the structure-activity relationship studies of N-[3, 5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl][2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-5 -yl]carboxamide (1), an inhibitor of transcription mediated by both NF-kappaB and AP-1 transcription factors, with the goal of improving its potential oral bioavailability. Compounds were examined for cell-based activity, were fit to Lipinski's rule of 5, and were examined for potential gastrointestinal permeability using the intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2. Selected groups were substituted at the 2-, 4-, and 5-positions of the pyrimidine ring using solution-phase combinatorial methodology. The introduction of a fluorine in the place of 2-chlorine of 1 resulted in a compound with comparable activity. However, other substitutions at the 2-position resulted in a loss of activity. The trifluoromethyl group at the 4-position could be replaced with a methyl, ethyl, chlorine, or phenyl without a substantial loss of activity. The carboxamide group at the 5-position is critical for activity. If it was moved to the 6-position, the activity was lost. The 2-methyl analogue of 1 (81) showed comparable in vitro activity and improved Caco-2 permeability compared to 1.

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