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Curr Opin Lipidol. 2000 Oct;11(5):503-9.

Macrophage proliferation in atherosclerosis.

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Department of Metabolic Medicine, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Japan.


Oxidized LDL can induce an increase in intracellular calcium concentration and the activation of protein kinase C in mouse peritoneal macrophages. The activation of protein kinase C leads to the release into the culture medium of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which plays a priming role in oxidized LDL-induced macrophage proliferation. The expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in macrophages by oxidized LDL is positively regulated in the 5'-flanking region of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene from sequence -169 to -160, but negatively regulated from -91 to -82. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor released by oxidized LDL from macrophages induces proliferation in autocrine or paracrine fashion via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. The capacity of oxidized LDL to induce macrophage proliferation in vitro may be involved in the enhanced progression of atherosclerosis in vivo.

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