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Immunol Rev. 2000 Aug;176:47-68.

Targets of B-cell antigen receptor signaling: the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3 signaling pathway and the Rap1 GTPase.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.


In this review, we discuss the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Rap 1 in B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling. PI3K produces lipids that recruit pleckstrin homology domain-containing proteins to the plasma membrane. Akt is a kinase that the BCR activates in this manner. Akt phosphorylates several transcription factors as well as proteins that regulate apoptosis and protein synthesis. Akt also regulates glycogen synthase kinase-3, a kinase whose substrates include the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT)cl and beta-catenin transcriptional activators. In addition to Akt, PI3K-derived lipids also regulate the activity and localization of other targets of BCR signaling. Thus, a key event in BCR signaling is the recruitment of PI3K to the plasma membrane where its substrates are located. This is mediated by binding of the Src homology (SH) 2 domains in PI3K to phosphotyrosine-containing sequences on membrane-associated docking proteins. The docking proteins that the BCR uses to recruit PI3K include CD19, Cbl, Gab1, and perhaps Gab2. We have shown that Gab1 colocalizes PI3K with SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP) and SHP2, two enzymes that regulate PI3K-dependent signaling. In contrast to PI3K, little is known about the Rap1 GTPase. We showed that the BCR activates Rap1 via phospholipase C-dependent production of diacylglycerol. Since Rap1 is thought to regulate cell adhesion and cell polarity, it may be involved in B-cell migration.

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