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Immunol Rev. 2000 Aug;176:19-29.

Regulation of the phospholipase C-gamma2 pathway in B cells.

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Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Liver Research, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi, Japan.


In B lymphocytes, a signaling complex that contributes to cell fate decisions is the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR), with different extents of receptor engagement leading to such outcomes as cell death, survival, or proliferation. Here, based upon the available genetic and biochemical data of the BCR signal components, we discuss several mechanisms by which BCR signals are propagated and modified, with specific emphasis on the phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma2-calcium pathway Gene-targeting experiments in DT40 chicken B cells highlighted the importance of the intracellular protein tyrosine kinases Syk and Btk in PLC-gamma2 activation. Until recently, the molecular mechanism underlying the double requirement for Syk and Btk in PLC-gamma2 activation remained unclear, but new data suggest that an adapter molecule, B-cell linker protein (alternatively named SLP-65 or BASH), phosphorylated by Syk, provides docking sites for Btk SH2 domain as well as PLC-gamma2 SH2 domains, thus bringing Btk into close proximity with PLC-gamma2. The activated Btk then phosphorylates PLC-gamma2, leading to its activation. The activated PLC-gamma2 converts phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate into the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), which in turn binds to IP3 receptors located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Binding of IP3 to the IP3 receptors is essential for triggering a calcium release from the ER and subsequent entry of extracellular calcium. Balancing these activation signals in the PLC-gamma2-calcium pathway are the inhibitory receptors expressed on B cells, FcyRII and paired immunoglobin-like receptor (PIR)-B. Although both FcyRII and PIR-B inhibits the BCR-mediated [Ca2+]i increase, the inhibitory mechanisms of these receptors are distinct. The FcyRII-mediated inhibitory signal is dependent on lipid phosphatase SHIP, whereas the PIR-B requires redundant functions of protein phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2. Thus, PIR-B and FcgammaRII inhibit calcium signals by utilizing two distinct signaling molecules, thereby contributing to setting threshold levels for activation signals as well as terminating activation responses.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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