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FEBS Lett. 2000 Oct 20;483(2-3):114-8.

Direct binding of hepatitis B virus X protein and retinoid X receptor contributes to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene transactivation.

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Center for Ligand and Transcription, Chonnam National University, Kwangju, South Korea.


The X gene product of the human hepatitis B virus (HBx), a major factor responsible for hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, modulates transactivation by a variety of transcription factors. Herein, expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene was found to be regulated transcriptionally by HBx through two distinct promoter regions. The cAMP response element (CRE)-1 site within the proximal promoter region mediated the HBx-induced transactivation of the PEPCK gene through C/EBP alpha and ATF-2. A retinoid X receptor (RXR) response element within the distal promoter region also contributed to the HBx-induced transactivation. Consistent with these results, HBx directly interacted with RXR, and the interaction interfaces were localized to the transactivation domain of HBx and the ligand binding domain of RXR.

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