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Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Oct;183(4):887-94.

Evidence of in vivo differential bioavailability of the active forms of matrix metalloproteinases 9 and 2 in parturition, spontaneous rupture of membranes, and intra-amniotic infection.

Author information

  • 1Perinatology Research Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University-Hutzel Hospital, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and MMP-2) have been implicated in the digestion of fetal membranes. The purpose of this study was to determine the amniotic fluid concentrations of active forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and to explore the participation of these enzymes in labor (term and preterm), rupture of membranes (term and preterm), and microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity.

STUDY DESIGN:

A cross-sectional study was conducted with 291 women in the following categories: (1) term not in labor, (2) term in labor, (3) preterm labor and intact membranes who delivered at term, (4) preterm labor who delivered preterm, (5) preterm labor with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity, (6) preterm premature rupture of membranes without microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity, (7) preterm premature rupture of membranes with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity, (8) term premature rupture of membranes not in labor, and (9) mid trimester. Active forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were measured by a novel assay that uses a substrate developed by protein engineering.

RESULTS:

(1) MMP-2 and MMP-9 were detected in 88% and 96% of amniotic fluid samples, respectively (255/291 and 279/291). (2) The concentrations of active forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 changed with advancing gestational age. (3) Spontaneous term parturition was associated with a significant increase in the median concentration of the active forms of MMP-9 (P <.005) and a significant decrease in the median concentration of the active forms of MMP-2 (P <.003). (4) Preterm labor with intact membranes leading to preterm delivery in the absence of infection was associated with a significant increase in the median concentration of the active forms of MMP-9 (P <.005) but not of the active forms of MMP-2 (P =.2). (5) Rupture of membranes (either term or preterm) was associated with a significant increase in the concentration of the active forms of MMP-9 and with a significant decrease in the concentration of the active forms of MMP-2 (P <.005 for term and P <.03 and P <.003 for preterm, respectively). (6) Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes was also associated with a significant increase in the concentration of the active forms of MMP-9 (P <.03) and a decrease in the concentration of the active forms of MMP-2 (P <.05). (7) Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity in patients with preterm labor was associated with a significant increase in the median concentration of the active forms of MMP-9 (P <.005) but not of the active forms of MMP-2 (P =.6).

CONCLUSION:

Spontaneous rupture of membranes (either term or preterm), parturition (either term or preterm), and microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity were associated with significant increases in the amniotic fluid concentration of the active forms of MMP-9. In contrast, the concentration of the active forms of MMP-2 either decreased or remained the same in these conditions. Our observations provide evidence for a novel regulation of gelatinolytic activity in vivo.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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