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Cancer Res. 2000 Oct 1;60(19):5494-8.

Down-Regulation of prostate-specific antigen expression by ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in human prostate cancer.

Author information

1
Division of Hematology/Oncology Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, University of California-Los Angeles School of Medicine, 90048, USA.

Abstract

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Recent studies found that ligand-activated PPARgamma regulated differentiation and clonal growth of several types of cancer cells, including prostate cancer, suggesting that PPARgamma could be a tumor suppressor. Troglitazone was a widely used antidiabetic drug that activates PPARgamma. Recently, we reported that this agent had antiprostate cancer effects in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we administered troglitazone for over 1.5 years to an individual with occult recurrent prostate cancer. Using the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels as a surrogate marker of the disease, the oral administration of troglitazone (600-800 mg/day) reduced the increase velocity of PSA levels, suggesting clinical efficacy of troglitazone in prostate cancer. PSA promoter/ enhancer reporter assays showed that the PPARgamma ligands troglitazone (10(-5) M), pioglitazone (10(-5) M), or 15-deoxy-delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (10(-5) M) down-regulated androgen-stimulated reporter gene activity in LNCaP cells, a prostate cancer cell line. The PSA promoter contains androgen receptor response elements (AREs). Reporter gene studies showed that troglitazone inhibited androgen activation of the AREs in the PSA regulatory region. Consistent with inhibition of gene expression, 2 days of incubation of LNCaP with troglitazone dramatically suppressed PSA protein expression without suppressing AR expression, suggesting that troglitazone inhibited ARE activation by a mechanism other than down-regulation of expression of the AR. Taken together, ligands of PPARgamma may be a useful therapeutic approach for the treatment of prostate cancer and may be acting, in part, by inhibiting transactivation of androgen-responsive genes.

PMID:
11034093
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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