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Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2000;16:191-220.

Bone development.

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Harvard Medical School, Department of Cell Biology, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.


Early development of the vertebrate skeleton depends on genes that pattern the distribution and proliferation of cells from cranial neural crest, sclerotomes, and lateral plate mesoderm into mesenchymal condensations at sites of future skeletal elements. Within these condensations, cells differentiate to chondrocytes or osteoblasts and form cartilages and bones under the control of various transcription factors. In most of the skeleton, organogenesis results in cartilage models of future bones; in these models cartilage is replaced by bone by the process of endochondral ossification. Lastly, through a controlled process of bone growth and remodeling the final skeleton is shaped and molded. Significant and exciting insights into all aspects of vertebrate skeletal development have been obtained through molecular and genetic studies of animal models and humans with inherited disorders of skeletal morphogenesis, organogenesis, and growth.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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