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Eur J Biochem. 2000 Nov;267(21):6476-85.

The myxochelin iron transport regulon of the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca Sg a15.

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GBF-Gesellschaft für Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig, Germany.


The biosynthetic gene cluster of the myxochelin-type iron chelator was cloned from Stigmatella aurantiaca Sg a15 and characterized. This catecholate siderophore was only known from two other myxobacteria. The biosynthetic genes of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid are located in the cluster (mxcC-mxcF). Two molecules of 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid are activated and condensed with lysine in a unique way by a protein homologous to nonribosomal peptide synthetases (MxcG). Inactivation of mxcG, which encodes an adenylation domain for lysine, results in a myxochelin negative mutant unable to grow under iron-limiting conditions. Growth could be restored by adding Fe3+, myxochelin A or B to the medium. Inactivation of mxcD leads to the same phenotype. A new type of reductive release from nonribosomal peptide synthetases of the 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid bis-amide of lysine from MxcG, catalyzed by a protein domain with homology to NAD(P) binding sites, is discussed. The product of a gene, encoding a protein similar to glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutases (mxcL), is assumed to transaminate the aldehyde that is proposed as an intermediate. Further genes encoding proteins homologous to typical iron utilization and iron uptake polypeptides are reported.

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