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J Neuroimmunol. 2000 Oct 2;110(1-2):195-208.

Modulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: effect of altered peptide ligand on chemokine and chemokine receptor expression.

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Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a T helper 1 (Th1) cell mediated demyelinating disease and the principal animal model for multiple sclerosis. Spinal cords from SJL mice primed with proteolipid protein peptide 139-151 (pPLP) expressed the chemokines RANTES, MCP-1, MIP-2, KC, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, Mig, and fractalkine. We also identified IP-10 in these samples and described a sequence polymorphism in this transcript. Chemokine expression was specific for tissues of the central nervous system. MCP-1, IP-10, and MIP-2 RNA expression significantly correlated with clinical score. Chemokine receptor expression generally correlated with ligand expression. pPLP-primed mice expressed the Th1-associated markers CCR5 and CXCR3 on mononuclear cells. In addition, cells expressing CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, CCR8, and CXCR2 were detected. Here we demonstrate that altered peptide ligand (APL)-induced protection from EAE was accompanied by modulation of chemokine and chemokine receptor expression. Spinal cord tissue sections from APL-protected mice showed greatly reduced levels of all chemokines and of CCR1, CCR5, CCR8, CXCR2 and CXCR3. The Th2-associated chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR4 were found in protected mice, supporting the hypothesis that Th1 but not Th2 cells are down-regulated by APL treatment. This report concludes that chemokines and chemokine receptors can be useful tools to follow modulation of autoimmune disease.

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