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Sci Total Environ. 2000 Aug 21;258(1-2):103-10.

Sea-nine antifoulant: an environmentally acceptable alternative to organotin antifoulants.

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Rohm and Haas Company, Spring House, PA 19477-0904, USA.


This article reviews previously reported data on the performance, environmental fate, and environmental modeling of Sea-Nine 211 antifoulant (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one). Since organotins are an industry standard, the environmental fate and environmental modeling results of tributyltin (TBT) are compared to those of the Sea-Nine antifoulant for reference. Laboratory and field tests results have shown Sea-Nine antifoulant to be highly effective. Five years of commercial use has confirmed this. Sea-Nine antifoulant and TBT were compared in an environmental risk assessment to predict their effects on the environment. Sea-Nine antifoulant was degraded rapidly in the environment by microorganisms. Its half-life in aerobic and anaerobic microcosm studies was less than 1 h. TBT degraded slowly under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with half-lives ranging from 6 to 9 months. The degradation products of Sea-Nine antifoulant were ring-opened compounds with greatly reduced toxicity. TBT degraded to dibutyltin species, which were still toxic and persistent in the environment. Bioaccumulation studies in fish showed essentially no bioaccumulation of the Sea-Nine biocide. The bioaccumulation of TBT was significant, with bioconcentration factors as high as 10000. The Sea-Nine antifoulant showed no chronic or reproductive toxicity to marine species, while TBT showed a wide range of effects on growth, development, and reproduction at levels as low as 2 parts per trillion (ppt). Computer modeling using the Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS) predicted maximum concentrations of Sea-Nine biocide of up to 10 ppt, far below the maximum acceptable environmental concentration (MAEC) of 630 ppt. The maximum predicted concentrations of TBT were as high as 345 ppt, far above the UK Environmental Standard in seawater of 2 ppt.

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