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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Sep 16;276(1):298-303.

A novel form of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the medaka, Oryzias latipes.

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  • 1Department of Aquatic Bioscience, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-8657, Japan.


The present study has identified three molecular forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the brain of a teleost, the medaka, by isolation of their cDNAs. This species has a novel GnRH, which is here named medaka-type GnRH (mdGnRH), in addition to two characterized forms, chicken-II-type GnRH (cGnRH-II) and salmon-type GnRH (sGnRH). Phylogenetic analysis showed that mdGnRH is a medaka homolog of and seabream-type GnRH (sbGnRH) and mammalian-type GnRH (mGnRH) in other species, and suggested that all vertebrates have three distinct GnRHs. Furthermore, in situ hybridization revealed that the mdGnRH gene is expressed only in neurons clustered within the preoptic area as sbGnRH and mGnRH genes in other species are, while the genes for cGnRH-II and sGnRH are only in the midbrain tegmentum and nucleus olfactoretinalis, respectively. This result suggested that mdGnRH is a hypophysiotropic factor and the other two forms are involved in other physiological events as neuromodulators or neurotransmitters.

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