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Bull Entomol Res. 2000 Jun;90(3):253-63.

Biology and field performance of gryon clavigrallae (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), an egg parasitoid of Clavigralla spp. (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in India.

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Crop Protection Division, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, 502 324, India.


The biology and impact of Gryon clavigrallae Mineo, an egg parasitoid of Clavigralla scutellaris Spinola and C. gibbosa (Westwood), was investigated. The calculated developmental threshold temperatures for females and males were 15.6 degrees C and 15.8 degrees C, respectively. Emergence exceeded 94% at temperatures between 22 and 30 degrees C. Adult females lived on average 28-96 days when fed with honey. Without food, adults lived < 6 days. Mean fecundity was 56.4 eggs per female. A significant trend of lower fecundity after longer periods of host deprivation was observed. Gryon clavigrallae females successfully oviposited in host eggs of all ages though eggs < 4 days old were preferred. Total host handling times were significantly longer on C. gibbosa eggs (23.5 min) than on C. scutellaris eggs (12.0 min). Females readily distinguished parasitized from non-parasitized host eggs. Superparasitism was observed when few or no unparasitized eggs were available. Eggs of the two Clavigralla species can be separated by surface structure and condition after eclosion. Clavigralla scutellaris laid significantly larger egg clusters than C. gibbosa (19.9 versus 10.5 eggs per cluster). Gryon clavigrallae was present as soon as the first Clavigralla spp. egg clusters were found on pigeonpea. The percentage of egg clusters parasitized increased early in the season with egg cluster density and remained high (up to 83%) despite fluctuations in host density. Overall, G. clavigrallae parasitized 40 and 58% of C. gibbosa and C. scutellaris eggs. The percentage of egg clusters parasitized and the number of eggs parasitized per cluster increased significantly with egg cluster size. The overall parasitoid sex ratio was highly female biased but varied with the number of eggs parasitized per cluster.

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