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J Urol. 2000 Oct;164(4):1385-9.

Cystometric evaluation of bladder function in non-anesthetized mice with and without bladder outlet obstruction.

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Departments of Clinical Pharmacology and Pathology, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.



To develop a model for cystometric study of bladder function in the awake mouse, and to characterize urodynamically and immunohistochemically the non-obstructed and infravesically obstructed mouse bladder.


Non-obstructed Balb/CJ mice, and mice with bladder outlet obstruction after surgical, partial ligation of the urethra underwent continuous cystometry as previously described for rats. Bladders were also investigated by immunohistochemistry.


During the period of cystometry, reproducible micturition patterns were obtained. Marked differences in the urodynamic parameters between non-obstructed and obstructed mice were revealed. In mice subjected to urethral obstruction, micturition pressure (p <0.05), threshold pressure (p <0.05), bladder capacity (p <0.001), micturition volume (p <0.001), and residual volume (p <0.05) increased significantly. There was no difference in basal pressure or compliance between non-obstructed and obstructed mice. Non-voiding bladder activity was consistently recorded in obstructed mice; both frequency and amplitude increased significantly (p <0.01). Compared with non-obstructed bladders, obstructed bladders showed hypertrophy of the bladder wall and various degrees of "patchy denervation" of the detrusor. When tested in non-obstructed mice capsaicin, prostaglandin E2 (intravesical administration) and apomorphine (subcutaneous administration) induced bladder overactivity.


Continuous cystometry can be reproducibly performed in awake, freely moving non-obstructed mice and mice with bladder outflow obstruction. The changes induced by infravesical obstruction in mice were similar to those previously found in rats. This model may be useful for investigations of genetically modified mice.

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