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Phys Rev Lett. 2000 Sep 25;85(13):2733-6.

Quantum interferometric optical lithography: exploiting entanglement to beat the diffraction limit

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 126-347, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109, USA.


Classical optical lithography is diffraction limited to writing features of a size lambda/2 or greater, where lambda is the optical wavelength. Using nonclassical photon-number states, entangled N at a time, we show that it is possible to write features of minimum size lambda/(2N) in an N-photon absorbing substrate. This result allows one to write a factor of N2 more elements on a semiconductor chip. A factor of N = 2 can be achieved easily with entangled photon pairs generated from optical parametric down-conversion. It is shown how to write arbitrary 2D patterns by using this method.

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