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Chest. 2000 Sep;118(3):704-11.

Management and outcome patterns for adult Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, 1985 to 1995: comparison of HIV-associated cases to other immunocompromised states.

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Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.



Encompassing periods preceding and following major advances in the diagnosis and management of HIV-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), the purpose of this study was to determine whether management and outcome patterns of non-HIV PCP parallel the management and outcomes of AIDS-related PCP.


Retrospective review of medical records.


A 375-bed tertiary-care urban teaching hospital and referral center.


All adult patients with morphologically confirmed PCP from 1985 to 1995.


From 1985 to 1995, 638 confirmed cases of PCP were identified, including 605 cases in 442 HIV-positive persons (HIV + PCP), and 33 cases in 33 non-HIV patients (non-HIV PCP). For HIV + PCP cases, a peak of 104 cases occurred in 1987, with a gradual decline to 23 in 1995. The proportion of cases requiring hospitalization declined from a peak of 91.6% in 1987 to a low of 51.6% in 1992. ICU admission was required for 6.3 to 8.2%, and mechanical ventilation for 4.7 to 5.7%. Overall mortality improved from 11.7 to 6.6%, although mortality for intubated patients remained at 50 to 60%. For the non-HIV PCP cases, 97% occurred from 1989 to 1995 with similar annual frequency, 97% required hospitalization, 69% required ICU admission, and 66% required intubation. Overall mortality was 39%, and mortality for intubated patients was 59%.


Despite major advances in diagnosis and management, PCP remains a significant problem in non-HIV-infected patients, and respiratory failure remains associated with a high mortality rate for patients with both HIV + PCP and non-HIV PCP.

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