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J Neurochem. 2000 Oct;75(4):1664-74.

Nitric oxide can differentially modulate striatal neurotransmitter concentrations via soluble guanylate cyclase and peroxynitrite formation.

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Department of Neurobiology, The Babraham Institute, Babraham, Cambridge, England.


In vivo microdialysis was used to investigate whether nitric oxide (NO) modulates striatal neurotransmitter release in the rat through inducing cyclic GMP formation via soluble guanylate cyclase or formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). When NO donors, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP; 1 mM) or (Z)-1-[2-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1- ium-1, 2-diolate (NOC-18; 1 mM), were retrodialysed for 15 min, acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin (5-HT), glutamate (Glu), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and taurine levels were significantly increased, whereas those of dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were decreased. Only effects on ACh, 5-HT, and GABA showed calcium dependency. Inhibition of soluble guanylate cyclase by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 100 and 200 microM) dose-dependently reduced NO donor-evoked increases in ACh, 5-HT, Glu, and GABA levels. Coperfusion of SNAP or NOC-18 with an ONOO(-) scavenger, L-cysteine (10 mM) resulted in enhanced concentrations of Glu and GABA. On the other hand, DA concentrations increased rather than decreased, and no reductions in DOPAC and 5-HIAA occurred. This increase in DA and the potentiation of Glu and GABA were calcium-dependent and prevented by ODQ. Similar to NO, infusions of ONOO(-) (10 or 100 microM) decreased DA, DOPAC, and 5-HIAA. Overall, these results demonstrate that NO increases ACh, 5-HT, Glu, and GABA levels primarily through a cyclic GMP-dependent mechanism. For DA, DOPAC, and 5-HIAA, effects are determined by levels of ONOO(-) stimulated by NO donors. When these are high, they effectively reduce extracellular concentrations through oxidation. When they are low, DA concentrations are increased in a cyclic GMP-dependent manner and may act to facilitate Glu and GABA release further. Thus, changes in brain levels of antioxidants, and the altered ability of NO to stimulate cyclic GMP formation during ageing, or neurodegenerative pathologies, may particularly impact on the functional consequences of NO on striatal dopaminergic and glutamatergic function.

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