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Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Aug;31(2):561-5. Epub 2000 Sep 7.

Cholera vaccines.

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  • 1Tropical and Geographic Medicine Center, Travelers' Advice and Immunization Center, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.


Cholera causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. For travelers, the risk of developing cholera per month of stay in a developing country is approximately 0.001%-0.01%, and cholera may present as traveler's diarrhea. In the United States, only a poorly tolerated, marginally effective, parenterally administered, phenol-inactivated vaccine is available. Outside the United States, 2 additional vaccines are commercially available: an oral killed whole cell-cholera toxin recombinant B subunit vaccine (WC-rBS) and an oral live attenuated Vibrio cholerae vaccine (CVD 103-HgR). These oral vaccines are well tolerated. In field trials, WC-rBS provides 80%-85% protection from cholera caused by V. cholerae serogroup O1 for at least 6 months. In volunteer studies, CVD 103-HgR provides 62%-100% protection against cholera caused by V. cholerae for at least 6 months. No commercially available cholera vaccine protects against disease caused by V. cholerae serogroup O139. New cholera vaccines are being developed.

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