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J Dairy Sci. 2000 Aug;83(8):1674-83.

Behavior of Brevibacterium linens and Debaryomyces hansenii as ripening flora in controlled production of soft smear cheese from reconstituted milk: protein degradation.

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Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Laboratoire de Génie et de Microbiologie des Procédés Alimentaires (LGMPA), Thiverval-Grignon, France.


Model smear soft cheeses, prepared with Debaryomyces hansenii and Brevibacterium linens as ripening starters, were ripened under aseptic conditions. Results of the cheese-making trials, in triplicate, were similar and showed similar patterns of protein degradation. In all of the trials, the acid-soluble nitrogen and nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) indexes and NH3 concentrations of the rind were low until d 10. The acid-soluble nitrogen and NPN of the rind then increased to 100 and 18% of total nitrogen, respectively, at d 76. The NH3 concentrations remained low until d 24 and increased until d 70, reaching about 1.8 g of NH3/kg of DM, and then remained constant. The acid-soluble nitrogen and NPN indexes and NH3 concentrations in the inner cheese mass were lower than in the rind. They showed the same evolution, reaching about 18% for acid-soluble nitrogen, 10% for NPN, and 1.5 g of NH3/kg of DM. It was shown that the inner cheese pH and populations of D. hansenii and B. linens have an effect on proteolysis. Viable cell counts of D. hansenii and B. linens were correlated with the environmental conditions and with proteolytic products. The determining role of carbon source and NH3 diffusions on the cheese ripening process were confirmed.

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