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Am J Ind Med. 2000 Oct;38(4):447-54.

Pregnancy outcomes among U.S. women Vietnam veterans.

Author information

  • 1Environmental Epidemiology Service, Veterans Health Administration Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC 20036-3406, USA.



Since the 1965-1975 Vietnam War, there has been persistent concern that women who served in the U.S. military in Vietnam may have experienced adverse pregnancy outcomes.


We compared self-reported pregnancy outcomes for 4,140 women Vietnam veterans with those of 4,140 contemporary women veterans who were not deployed to Vietnam. As a measure of association, we calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression adjusting for age at conception, race, education, military nursing status, smoking, drinking and other exposures during pregnancy.


There was no statistically significant association between military service in Vietnam and index pregnancies resulting in miscarriage or stillbirth, low birth weight, pre-term delivery, or infant death. The risk of having children with "moderate-to-severe" birth defects was significantly elevated among Vietnam veterans (adjusted OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.06-2.02).


The risk of birth defects among index children was significantly associated with mother's military service in Vietnam.

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