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Hum Genet. 2000 Jan;106(1):116-24.

Mutation and polymorphism analysis of the TRKA (NTRK1) gene encoding a high-affinity receptor for nerve growth factor in congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) families.

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Department of Pediatrics, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Japan.

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  • Hum Genet 2000 May;106(5):575.


The human TRKA gene encodes a high-affinity tyrosine kinase receptor for nerve growth factor. Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder reported from various countries and characterized by anhidrosis (inability to sweat), the absence of reaction to noxious stimuli, and mental retardation. We have found that TRKA is the gene responsible for CIPA. We have studied TRKA in 46 CIPA chromosomes derived from 23 unrelated Japanese CIPA families. including three that have been previously reported, and identified 11 novel mutations. Four (L93P, G516R, R648 C, and D668Y) are missense mutations that result in amino acid substitutions at positions conserved in the TRK family, including TRKA, TRKB, and TRKC. Three (S131 fs, L579 fs, and D770 fs) are frameshift mutations. Three (E164X, Y359X, and R596X) are nonsense mutations. The other is an intronic branch-site (IVS7-33T-->A) mutation, causing aberrant splicing in vitro. We also report the characterization of eight intragenic polymorphic sites, including a variable dinucleotide repeat and seven single nucleotide polymorphisms, and describe the haplotypic associations of alleles at these sites in 106 normal chromosomes and 46 CIPA chromosomes. More than 50% of CIPA chromosomes share the frameshift mutation (R548 fs) that we described earlier. This mutation apparently shows linkage disequilibrium with a rare haplotype in normal chromosomes, strongly suggesting that it is a common founder mutation. These findings represent the first extensive analysis of CIPA mutations and associated intragenic polymorphisms; they should facilitate the detection of CIPA mutations and aid in the diagnosis and genetic counseling of this painless but severe genetic disorder with devastating complications.

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