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J Insect Physiol. 2000 Dec 1;46(12):1509-1515.

Organizational and activational effects of hormones on insect behavior.

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Department of Psychology and Department of Entomology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 320 Morrill Hall, MC118, 500 S Goodwin, IL 61801, Urbana, USA


The concepts of hormone organization and activation provide a framework for thinking about the influence of hormones on development, brain, and behavior in vertebrates. There is good evidence for activational effects of hormones on the nervous system and behavior in insects, but organizational effects are almost never discussed in the insect literature. This paper explores the utility of the concepts of hormonal organization and activation of behavior in insects. We describe the two concepts as developed from studies of vertebrates, review some insect examples that appear to fit this classification scheme, and consider how explicit use of the concept of organization might benefit studies of the insect brain and behavior.


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