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Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2000 Aug;49(2-3):159-68.

Homeostasis model assessment in a population with mixed ethnicity: the 1992 Singapore National Health Survey.

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Department of Endocrinology, Lipid Unit, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, 169608, Singapore, Singapore.


We studied insulin resistance and beta-cell function with reference to ethnic group, glucose tolerance and other coronary artery disease risk factors in a cross section of the Singapore population which comprises Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians. 3568 individuals aged 18-69 were examined. Blood pressure, anthropometric data, blood lipids, glucose and insulin were assayed in the fasting state. Glucose and serum insulin were measured 2 h after an oral glucose challenge. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function were calculated using homeostasis model assessment. Asian Indians had higher insulin resistance than Chinese or Malays. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM) were associated with greater insulin resistance and impaired beta-cell function compared to normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Insulin resistance was positively correlated with blood pressure in women and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride in both men and women. It was negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol and LDL/apolipoprotein B ratio. beta-cell function showed no significant correlations with the cardiovascular risk factors studied. It appears that both impaired beta-cell function and insulin resistance are important for the development of hyperglycemia whereas insulin resistance alone seems more important in the development of coronary artery disease as it correlates with several known coronary artery disease risk factors.

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