Send to

Choose Destination
Eur J Cell Biol. 2000 Jul;79(7):513-9.

In vitro production of superoxide and nitric oxide (as nitrite and nitrate) by Mytilus galloprovincialis haemocytes upon incubation with PMA or laminarin or during yeast phagocytosis.

Author information

Department of Zoology, Chennai/India.


The phagocytic process is one of the most important elements of the self-defence system in mammals as well as in molluscs. In mammalian phagocytes, superoxide participates in the innate defence system by combining with nitric oxide to generate peroxynitrite, a strong oxidant that possesses highly cytotoxic properties against bacteria. To evidence a role of nitric oxide in the self-defence system of the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis similar to the role observed in the mammalian defence system, we measured the generation of superoxide and nitrite/nitrate (the stable end products of nitric oxide) upon in vitro stimulation of M. galloprovincialis haemocytes with PMA, laminarin, LPS and by phagocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast cells). We show that stimulation with PMA, laminarin and yeast cell phagocytosis promotes superoxide and nitrite/nitrate generation from M. galloprovincialis haemocytes. Inhibitors of NADPH oxidase and inhibitors of NO synthase decreased the nitrite/nitrate levels generated by M. galloprovincialis haemocytes showing that both NADPH oxidase and NO synthase pathways are involved in the self-defence system of M. galloprovincialis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center