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J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Aug;48(8):3497-506.

Sensory and instrumental analyses of volatiles generated during the extrusion cooking of oat flours.

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Department of Food Science and Technology, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, United Kingdom.


Three batches of oats were extruded under four combinations of process temperature (150 or 180 degrees C) and process moisture (14. 5 and 18%). Two of the extrudates were evaluated by a sensory panel, and three were analyzed by GC-MS. Maillard reaction products, such as pyrazines, pyrroles, furans, and sulfur-containing compounds, were found in the most severely processed extrudates (high-temperature, low-moisture). These extrudates were also described by the assessors as having toasted cereal attributes. Lipid degradation products, such as alkanals, 2-alkenals, and 2, 4-alkadienals, were found at much higher levels in the extrudates of the oat flour that had been debranned. It contained lower protein and fiber levels than the others and showed increased lipase activity. Extrudates from these samples also had significantly lower levels of Maillard reaction products that correlated, in the sensory analysis, with terms such as stale oil and oatmeal. Linoleic acid was added to a fourth oat flour to simulate the result of increased lipase activity, and GC-MS analysis showed both an increase in lipid degradation products and a decrease in Maillard reaction products.

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