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Prostate. 2000 Sep 1;44(4):287-95.

Vitamin E and other antioxidants inhibit human prostate cancer cells through apoptosis.

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1
Department of Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City 84132, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Many human prostate cancer cells have escaped the apoptotic effects of natural regulators of cell growth such as transforming growth factor betal (TGF beta-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF).

METHODS:

Prostate cancer cell growth was investigated by treating with antioxidants. DU-145 (androgen-unresponsive), LNCaP (androgen-responsive), and ALVA-101 (androgen moderately responsive) were grown in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with bovine fetal calf serum and antibiotics, and were treated with various antioxidants for 1-7 days. Cell growth was then determined with the Cell Titer 96 AQ assay, and apoptosis was assessed by cell death detection ELISA, nuclear morphology, and TUNEL techniques.

RESULTS:

Cells treated with or without (+/-)-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) for 1-7 days at concentrations from 0.078-2.5 microg/ml modestly affected cell growth compared to other antioxidants tested. Tocopherol produced a significant (P < 0.01) inhibition of ALVA-101 and LNCaP (10-24% of control; 0.078-2.5 microg/ml; at 6 days; n = 6). DU-145 cells were not growth-inhibited significantly. However, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) produced a significant (P < 0.01, n = 6; 17-80% of control; 2.5-20 microg/ml; 1-7 days) inhibition of DU-145 and ALVA-101 cells. A significant (P < 0.01) and maximum inhibition of LNCaP cells occurred at all concentration of PDTC (2. 5-20 microg/ml). A third compound, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETC), incubated for 1-7 days, produced a significant dose response suppression of cell growth of DU-145 and ALVA-101 cells (P < 0.01; 14-88% of control; 1.25-80 microg/ml; n = 6). LNCaP cells were inhibited by DETC (P < 0.01; 28% of control; 1.25-80 microg/ml; n = 6). All three antioxidants tested stimulated apoptosis in actively dividing ALVA-101, DU-145, and LNCaP cells (P < 0.01; n = 6), but confluent cells were affected less. Testosterone had additive inhibitory effects when combined with PDTC in ALVA-101 cells; however, the other cell lines were not influenced.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results demonstrate that antioxidants modulate human prostate cancer cell proliferation by altering apoptosis in dividing cells, and this necrosis or apoptosis in confluent cells is not as effective.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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