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J Trauma Stress. 2000 Jul;13(3):499-509.

Fear, helplessness, and horror in posttraumatic stress disorder: investigating DSM-IV criterion A2 in victims of violent crime.

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  • 1Subdepartment of Clinical Health Psychology, University College London, England.

Abstract

A DSM-IV diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) required for the first time that individuals must report experiencing intense fear, helplessness, or horror at the time of the trauma. In a longitudinal study of 138 victims of violent crime, we investigated whether reports of intense trauma-related emotions characterized individuals who, after 6 months, met criteria for PTSD according to the DSM-III-R. We found that intense levels of all 3 emotions strongly predicted later PTSD. However, a small number of those who later met DSM-III-R or ICD criteria for PTSD did not report intense emotions at the time of the trauma. They did, however, report high levels of either anger with others or shame.

PMID:
10948489
DOI:
10.1023/A:1007741526169
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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