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J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000 Jul;15(7):737-43.

A topographic study of Helicobacter pylori density, distribution and associated gastritis.

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Department of Pathology, Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad, India.



The topographic distribution and density of Helicobacter pylori and associated gastritis in the stomach were studied in order to determine which biopsy sites are likely to provide the maximum yield so as to reduce the fallacious results due to sampling error.


Fifty patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms were studied. Eleven gastric biopsies from predetermined sites were obtained and subjected to ultra-rapid urease test, imprint cytology and histology. Haematoxylin and eosin stain was used for defining gastritis and other associated histopathological details. Loeffler's methylene blue stain was used to confirm the presence of H. pylori in imprint smears and histological sections.


All 50 patients had H. pylori infection and evidence of chronic gastritis at one or more of the 11 biopsy sites. Maximum and minimum percentage positivity were observed at A3 (antral lesser curvature) and B4 (corpus greater curvature), respectively. Various sites in decreasing order of percentage positivity were A3 > A2 > A1 > A4 > B3 > B1 > A5 > B6 > B5 > B2 > B4. Among the biopsies obtained from the corpus, B3 (corpus lesser curvature) was the site with maximum positivity. A3 and B4 had a statistically significant difference in percentage positivity (P < 0.0001) for H. pylori and gastritis. The maximum and minimum density scores of H. pylori and gastritis were found in A3 and the B4, respectively. A3 had a significantly higher (P < 0.0001) mean density score than any other site in the stomach. The difference in the grading of H. pylori between A3 and B3 (sites of maximum positivity in antrum and corpus) was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). A statistically significant (P < 0.001) positive correlation between increasing grades of H. pylori and gastritis was observed at the site of maximum density. Eighty per cent of the patients had antral predominant gastritis and in 82%, H. pylori was predominantly observed in antral biopsies.


It is concluded that two biopsies taken from A3 are sufficient for confirmation of presence of H. pylori and associated gastritis for initiation of treatment. However, additional biopsies from B3 will help in deciding the topographic pattern of gastritis.

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